# Statistic in education/meaning/nature/scope 2020

## Statistic in education/meaning/nature/scope 2020

Discuss the meaning nature and scope of educational statistics
What is statistics discuss the nature and application of statistics in education

The word statistics generally means accumulated numerical statements, as also the theory of statistics. the science of statistics is now quite and has been defined in a number of ways. Bowley defined statistics as ''Numerical statements of facts in any department of enquiry placed in relation to each other. '' Webster defined it as 'classified facts respecting the condition of the people in a state.

statistics are aggregates of fact numerical expressed, that they are responsible accurate, they are collected in a systematic manner and are influenced by a number of facts.

Nature of educational statistics
the foundation of statistical methods is provided by mathematics. the mathematical theory of statistics has in fact achieved recognition as an area of specialization the general field of higher mathematics. no longer is it possible to qualify as statistical expert and be relative ignorant mathematically. it means possible, never the less to acquire some very useful information regarding the application and interpretation of certain important statistical techniques without studying their mathematical bases now statistics is the independent field of study.

statistics is now used in many fields, because our knowledge and decisions with regard to everything depend on the facts and data available for psychologists and educationists statistics is used in test construction, experiments and research. statistics has now become fundamental in education and psychology.
Educational statistics deals with the data associate with education.

The studies of statistical treatment always involve empirical or observed evidences or data but not all studies involving empirical data are statistical. factual information about an individual is not statistical information. a statistical problem always relates to a sample or group of individuals rather than to a single individual. the group or sample is the frame of reference in statistical analysis and interpretation. the numerical data and statistics are interpreted with reference to a group. statistic education

### Definition of statistic education.

Statistics is a science which deals with the method of collecting, classifying, identifying and interpreting numerical date which throw some light on any sphere of enquiry and investigation.
the term statictics has been defined widely some important definitions has been provided here.

#### According to M.G Kendall-

''statistics is the science collecting, analysing and interpreting numerical data.''

#### English and English-

''The statistics is science as well as art that gathers and coordinates mathematically so that the numerical relation among these facts may be established clearly and free from anomalies and to chance factors.''

#### G.Simpson and F.Kofika-

''the word statistics today refers either to quantitative information or to method dealing with quantitative information of qualitative information.''

#### George A. Ferguson-

''statistics is a branch of scientific methodology. it deals with collection, classification , analysis and interpretation of data obtained by conducting of experiments, observation and surveys its essential purpose is to draw inferences about the properties of population.''

The definition of Ferguson indicates one types statistics i.e inferential or parametric statistics. the main focus of the definition is to infere about characteristics of population. it is known as the process of generalisation. the group or sample observation are not confined to the group but are used to estimate properties of the population from which the sample has been deawn. it does not cover the whole concept of statistics.

Statistics are the measures or indexes of a group or a sample, e.g. mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. the sample measures are known as statistics and population measures are known as parameters.''

Another meaning of ''statistics is the data of certain observations and phenomenon. the school statistics means number of teachers (science and arts) enrollment of the student, number of classrooms etc.

Now the ''statistics'' is the independent field of study or academic discipline. it has wide application in behaviour science and social science.

### Meaning of statistics education-

Educational measurement or educational statistics deals with the date associate with education. statistics has been very widely used in education and psychology. as for example- in the scaling of mental test and other psychology data for measuring the reliability and validity of test score, for determining the I.Q., item analysis and factor analysis vast application of statistical theory has given rise to a new disciple called psychometry and education.

#### 1. Pedagogical aspect-

It involves the entire process of teaching and learning connected by the context of subject matter taught.

#### 2. Evaluation aspect-

Evaluation is a continuous and comprehensive assessment of achievement and progress of a pupil.

Examination is one of the tools of evaluation of the achievement done through some type of test and the result is usually in two ways-

a. By rank order giving a serial position in the group i.e -1st 2nd, 3rd etc or by ranks only like O,A,B,C etc. however, this does not provide an enact measurement of achievement.

b. By awarding marks or scope.

### Scope of educational statistics.

The following are the characteristics of educational statics-

1. Basically the term statistics is used for the indexes or measures of an individual and statistics are the quantitative description of a group or a sample.

2. statistics is the independent field of study or a academic discipline which deals with collection, classification, analysis and interpretation of data to draw the inferences.

3. statistics is the empirical science. the data are collected by conducting an experiments, observation and survey.

4. statistical methods are the techniques, used to facilitate in the analysis and the interpretation of numerical data. it makes the raw data meaningful.

5.The foundation of statistical methods is provided by mathematics, but now it has achieved recognition.

6. statistics are used to draw inferences about the properties of population on the basis of sample statistics or observation.

7. statistical techniques are used to estimate the sampling error or chance error for an accurate or valid conclusions.

8. In social sciences and behavioural sciences large sample is selected for the study. a large sample reduces the error of measurement and the statistics of a large sample are the good estimates of parameters.

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