Nature, Characteristic, Objectives,Scope,Types of Educational Technology

Nature, Characteristic, Objectives,Scope,Types of Educational Technology

Nature, Characteristic, Objectives,Scope,Types of Educational Technology
educational technology

Following conclusions may be derived after conducting an analysis of above mentioned definitions:
Nature of educational technology

1. the basis of educational technology is science.

2. Educational technology studies the effect of science and technology upon education. thus, science and technology are used under educational technology which is the practical  aspect of science.

3. educational technology is a continues dynamic, progressive, and effect-producing method.

4. New conceptions are possible only due to educational technology such as programmed learning, micro-teaching, simulated teaching, interaction analysis, video-tape, tape-recorder, projector and computer etc.

5. educational technology accepts school as a system. in this system, the school-building, furniture and teacher act as input while various methods, technique, strategies and the teaching and examination with the help of audio-visual aids function in the form of a process. lastly, the output is in the form of ability of the pupils.

6. Engineering technology is not educational technology. the engineering technology has manufactured radio, tape recorder, videotape and TV etc. which are use as audio-visual aids in teaching. in education, it is accepted as hardware approach.

7. Audio-visual aids cannot be termed educational technology, because their concern is only with the process aspect of educational technology and not with the input and output aspect. but if this aids are used to achieve educational objectives, then it can be put in the category of educational technology.

8. Programmed instruction is also different from educational technology because the students learns himself during the programmed instructions. it does not allowed interaction between pupils and teachers. it can be used only for limited objectives and limited subject matter. Thus, programmed instruction is merely a part of educational technology.

9. Educational technology cannot solve each and every problems of education, it can be used in teaching and instructional system inly.

10. Educational technology will not replace the teacher. these are three aspects of educational technology :
1. Input
2. process and
3. output
Input is a teacher's job. therefore, educational technology cannot snatch the place of a teacher. secondly, educational technology develops cognitive domain only and not the affactive domain. affective domain can only be developed when an interaction between teachers and pupils takes place. hance, educational technology cannot replace the teacher. however, a teacher can provide benefits to the large groups of students with the help of redio, tape-recorder and television etc.

Characteristics of educational technology.

Characteristics of educational technology
The educational technology has a numerious characteristic some of the following are as follows:

1. Educational technology has contributed in developing various methods, for example, micro-teaching method, simulate teaching interaction analysis, audio-visual aids and programmed learning method.

2. In the field of educational technology, psychology, science, technology, system art, audio-visual aids and machines are used.

3. Educational technology is based on the application of the scientific knowledge.

4. educational technology is helpful in making the teaching process objectives, easy, clear, interesting and scientific.

5. in educational technology, the provision of measuring tools is emphasied for the evaluation of learning outcomes.

6. educational technology is a continuous  dynamic technology .

7. A desired is possible in th behaviour of the teachers and pupils.

8. Educational technology encourages learning by controlling the environment.

Objectives of Educational Technology.

These are the objectives of educational technology , listed below such as :

1. To modernize the learning methods and teaching after systematising them so that these may be turn effective according to the needs of the changing era for the unknown future.

2. To modify behaviours of the teacher and pupils by improving the teaching, learning and evaluation conditions.

3. to make the classroom teaching easy, clear, interesting, effective, understandable, objective and scientific.

4. to help in increasing various facilities by solving the most complicated problems of human life so that the human life may carry on is progress continuously.

Scope of educational technology 

Scope of educational technology
 Educational technology got developed as a new subject in the field of education for the last few years. the term 'Education' includes teaching, learning, instruction and training, similarly the scope of educational technology is also much wider. the below mentioned technologies are included in it :

1. Behavioural technology
2. instructional technology
3. Teaching technology
4. instructional technology
5. Training technology 
6. Cybernatic psychology 
7. system analysis

In view of the definitions and characterstics of educational technology some general working areas of educational technology can be pointed out:

1. Area of curriculum construction :

In the present technological and psychological age, the application of scientific and technological knowledge is much essential for the curriculum construction. the curriculum construction has become a very tedious job in the field of education. the task of the curriculum construction can be simplified with the help of educational technology.

2. Selection of  teaching-learning strategies:

 the selection of  teaching-learning strategies turns easy with the help of educational technology.

3. selection of  audio-visual material:

Another important working area of educational technology is that the teacher can select easily the audio-visual aids with its assistance.

4. Determination of educational objectives:

the software aspect of educational technology contributes in the formulation of teaching objectives.

5. Areas of Teachers training:

the new innovations of educational technology can be used successfully in teachers training and it is actually being done, such as micro-teaching, simulated teaching, system approach, classroom interaction and teaching models etc.

6.Areas of Feedback.

In the field of education, educational technology has emphasised on feedback for evaluation. many experiments have been carried out in this area.

7.Areas of Hardwares:

one form of educational technology also occurs as hardware devices such as teaching machines, tape-recorder, television, computer and satellite etc. the learning in the classroom can be made effective with their use.
Nature, Characteristic, Objectives,Scope,Types of Educational Technology

Types of Educational technology. 

Lumsdane suggests that educational technology has the following three forms:

1.Hardware approach
2.Software approach
3.System approach

1. Hardware Approach:

It is use of engineering machine in teaching. physical science and engineering technology have given birth to it Davis has said that hardware approach is the application of physical science in education and teaching with which the teaching process is being mechanized gradually so that maximum pupils may be educated in minimum time and at law cost. educational technology includes cinema, gramophone, radio, tape-recorder, projector, computer, closed circuit television CCTV and electronic video tape etc. 
all the teaching machines, the use of which makes the teaching more and more effective in order to achieve the teaching objectives. human knowledge has three aspects. these are : 
1. preservation 
2. transmission and
the history of preservation of the knowledge started since the printing machines. the knowledge is preserved with these machines in the form of books shelved in the libraries. knowledge is also preserved through the tape-recorder and films. transmission or expansion of the knowledge is supported by machine like mike, radio, and television etc. with these, thousands of pupils enjoy home-delivery of such benefits. 
suprising changes have occured in the process of education. the correspondence courses and open university are the gifts of hardware approach.

2. Software approach:

software approach is also called instructional technology or teaching technology or behavioural technology. it does not allow the use of engineering machines. psychological principles of teaching and learning are utilised so that desirable changes in the behaviour of the pupils may be brought about.
the machines are used only to make the subject matter effective. hence, the software approach is concerned with the teaching objectives in behavioural terms, principles of teaching methods and techniques of teaching reinforcement of instructional tries to develop all the three aspects, i.e process and output.
while hardware approach means the use of machines in teaching, software approach means the use of teachings and learning principles.

3. System Analysis :

system analysis is also known as management technology. developed after world war- II, it provided a scientific basis to the decision making regarding the problems associated with administration, management, commerce, industry and army. it helps to study the problems of educational administration and management in a scientific and conclusive way.
by using it we can make the educational system, educational administration and management effective. it helps in the development of educational administration and formulation of instructional outline. 
educational system, educational administration and management can be made more effective and less costly by using it. hence, this day the system analysis occupies an important place in the field of teaching.

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